The Fuel Injector Balance test is performed when a misfire, knock, excessive smoke, or rough running condition exists with no electrical DTCs. During the Cylinder Power Balance portion of the test, the engine control module (ECM) turns OFF individual injectors while the engine is running and the scan tool displays engine RPM. The ECM adjusts for the drop in engine speed, so the power contribution of each cylinder must be felt by the technician. If a fuel injector is turned OFF and there is a different power contribution observed when compared to the other cylinders, that cylinder is identified with the complaint. If the customer complaint occurs during idle or during offidle tip in acceleration, the balance rates are used to identify the cylinder with a fault related to the fuel injector or engine compression. If a fuel injector is turned OFF and the engine noise or smoke disappears, that cylinder has a fuel injector or engine compression condition.
The numbers below refer to the step numbers on the diagnostic table.
4: The balance rate adjustments are utilized by the ECM only at idle. The balance rates are the fuel adjustments for each individual cylinder based on the variations in engine crankshaft speed. A positive value indicates that fuel is being added to each cylinder event, such as with poor engine compression or a fuel injector that is not flowing enough fuel. A negative value indicates fuel being removed from each cylinder event, such as a fuel injector that is flowing too much fuel. The balance rates will change depending on if the transmission is in Neutral or Drive.
5: This step determines if the ECM can control a stable fuel pressure. A high balance rate may be caused by a fuel injector or compression only if the ECM can control fuel pressure.
6: The Cylinder Power Balance Test may be performed at any engine speed or load from idle to wide open throttle (WOT). There is a 5 minute time limit for each test. The ECM and scan tool must both be powered down to reset the timer.
Fuel Injector Balance Test with Tech 2 (with Automatic Transmission)
||Did you perform the Diagnostic SystemCheck – Vehicle?
||Go to Step 2
System Check –
||Are any DTCs set other than P0300, P0301- P0308?
||Go to DiagnosticTrouble Code
(DTC) List –
|Go to Step 3
||Does the customer concern occur at idle or during tip-in acceleration off-idle?
||Go to Step 4
||Go to Step 6
||1. Start and run the engine until theengine coolant temperature (ECT)
is more than 82°C (180°F).
2. Turn OFF all accessories.
3. Hold the brake pedal in the fully
applied position. A hiss will be
noticeable when the brake is fully
4. Place the transmission in Drive.
5. Idle the engine for more than 30
6. Record the Balancing Rate Cyl.1-8
parameters from the scan tool while
the engine is at idle speed.
7. Repeat steps 2-6 with the
transmission in Neutral.
Are all of the Balancing Rate parameters
within the first specified range in Drive, and
the second specified range in Neutral?
||Go to Step 6
||Go to Step 5
||Graph the Fuel Pressure Regulator. Refer to Fuel Pressure Regulator Diagnosis .Is the fuel pressure regulator graph normal?
||Go to Step 7
||Go to Step 9
||IMPORTANT: The fuel Cylinder Power Balance Test must be performed under the conditions for which the concern occurred. The concern must be duplicated during the test. IMPORTANT: DO NOT operate the cruise control during this test. Cruise control reactivation after the test may cause a brief extreme increase in engine speed. 1. Observe the cylinder power contribution or other customer concern. 2. Perform the Cylinder Power Balance Test in Special Functions.Do any of the cylinders indicate a different cylinder power contribution than the others, or lessen the customer concern?
||Go to Step 7
||IMPORTANT: A fuel injector leak into the combustion chamber may result in mechanical damage to the cylinder. If any fuel spray comes out of a glow plug hole during the compression test, replace the fuel injector of the affected cylinder. Perform the Engine Compression test. Refer to Engine Compression Test in Engine Mechanical – 6.6L.Do any of the cylinders have low compression?
||Go to Symptoms – Engine Mechanical in Engine Mechanical – 6.6L
||Go to Step 8
||IMPORTANT: Refer to Injection System Components in Engine Controls Component Views . Failure to correctly identify the cylinder positions may result in the replacement of the wrong fuel injector. Replace the fuel injectors on the cylinders that had poor cylinder power contribution, high balance rates, or a noise/smoke change. Refer to Fuel Injector Replacement (Left) or Fuel Injector Replacement (Right) .Did you complete the replacements?
||Go to Step 10
||Replace the fuel pressure regulator. Refer to Fuel Pressure Regulator Replacement. Did you complete the replacement?
||Go to Step 10
||Operate the vehicle under the conditions in which the concern occurred.Does the system operate normally, with no DTCs or symptoms?
||Go toSymptoms –